Is the Federal Bureaucracy America’s Nobility?

In last month’s impeachment hearings, Stanford University law professor Pamela Karlan testified that the U.S. Constitution does not allow titles of nobility. Professor Karlan intended a witticism about Barron Trump, the president’s 13-year-old son, but she managed to raise an issue often overlooked: the possibility that America’s vast federal bureaucracy offers the equivalent to titles of nobility.
Current FBI Director Christopher Wray, a lawyer who never served in the FBI, referred to the Department of Justice’s special counsel as “Director Mueller,” even though Mueller had left that post way back in 2013. In Wray’s mind, “Director” is some kind of

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